Archive pour la catégorie ‘Justice - Security’

Cohesion spending increase

Vendredi 27 janvier 2012

The budgetary constraints currently faced by Member States mean that the EU’s structural funds are an ever more valuable source of growth-enhancing investment especially in the regions that need it most.

The effective use of these funds gathered pace in 2011, with payments to Member States from last year’s cohesion policy budget hitting a record €32.9 billion, an 8% increase on the €30.5 billion paid out in 2010. This higher payment rate from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Cohesion Fund for 2011 also reflects the fact that we are well into the second half of the 2007-2013 financial framework, which is when most invoices are submitted. EU structural funds in 2011 helped to further the Single Market through investments in a broad range of strategic and growth-enhancing areas, including broadband connections, research and development infrastructure, innovation projects, new Small- and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and education.

In addition, the European Commission has taken measures to prioritise growth-enhancing investments. For example, temporary “top-up” payments worth €374 million were made in 2011 to Greece and Romania, following the entry into force of new rules to support the economies of Member States experiencing difficulties in terms of financial stability.

In Greece, a total of €11.5 billion will be invested in around 180 priority projects, leading to the creation of between 90,000 and 108,000 jobs.

For Italy, an action plan for the southern or Mezzogiorno regions will enable €3.1 billion of EU and national funding to be invested rapidly in regional projects in education and school infrastructure, broadband, railways and supporting SMEs. This is the result of a reprogramming of funds, in cooperation with the national and regional authorities, to trigger much-needed growth in crucial sectors.

The Commission has also called on Member States to use €22bn of European Social Fund money not yet committed to projects to improve job opportunities for young people. Today one in five youngsters looking for work cannot find a job. The new ‘Youth Opportunities Initiative’ is pleading for Member State to work on preventing early school leaving; helping youngsters develop skills relevant to the labour market; ensuring work experience and on-the-job training and helping young people find a first good job. The European Commission has also set out concrete actions to be financed directly by EU funds.

Background

At the end of 2011, the average payment rate for all three funds (European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund) in the EU was 33.4% of the amounts allocated for the 2007-2013 period. These rates vary significantly between countries, from 16.5% to 48.3%; while the analysis per fund reveals that the ERDF payments increased by 55% year-on-year from 22.3% at end 2010 to 34.3% at end 2011. For ESF, the payment rate has increased by 52%, from 23.25% at end 2010 to 35.43% at end 2011 (total advanced and interim payments). There are still differences between countries that vary from18.68% to 60.43%, but in all member states an improvement can be noticed.

The European Union backs greener traffic management

Mardi 24 janvier 2012

The three-year project, titled THE ISSUE, brings together five European regions in the United Kingdom, Italy, France and Poland.

With a EUR 2.7 million boost as part of the ‘Regions of knowledge’ Theme of the EU’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the project partners will support scientists, engineers and development agencies from the different regions to work together and develop more effective methods of easing road congestion and improving the urban environment.

Traffic management systems use information and communication technologies (ICT) applied to both transport infrastructure and vehicles in order to improve life on the roads for everyone. This can be in terms of safety, reliability or even productivity. Increasingly, traffic management systems are also addressing the need to tackle environmental factors.

The ultimate aim is to influence future policy so that traffic management systems that benefit public health and safety are widely implemented. The main trouble areas when it comes to traffic management are how transport impacts on urban mobility, how green our transport system is, and the health, safety and security of citizens.

In THE ISSUE project diverse technologies and research applications will be used to tackle these traffic management issues. One such example is the integration of computer intelligence solutions and real-time satellite navigation data into existing operational urban traffic management systems. Two other practical approaches are space and in situ measurements to help mitigate risk to citizens’ health from traffic-induced air pollution, and technology demonstration and pre-operational real-time trials of a hydrogen fuel cell-powered car operating in a city environment.

The project is being headed up by researchers from the University of Leicester and Leicester City Council in the United Kingdom.

Councillor Rory Palmer from Leicester City Council spoke about the project: ‘Making Leicester a low carbon city is one of our main priorities and this kind of research will be essential to helping tackle issues around congestion and air quality in the future. I am proud that the city council can help make this work possible.’

Project leader Professor Alan Wells from the University of Leicester’s Space Research Centre said: ‘With the EU funding we have secured, we can now coordinate different research activities in the same general areas of traffic and the environment that are being carried out by partners from across Europe. These sort of outcomes have never been brought together in this way before.’

The main objective of the ‘Regions of Knowledge’ Theme of the FP7 is to promote knowledge exchange and cooperation between European regions so as to stimulate economic growth and job creation. THE ISSUE project aims to create vibrant partnerships between different regional research clusters to bring together and coordinate existing and forthcoming research and technological development (RTD) programmes relevant to traffic, health and the environment.

The idea is that by holding consultations, participating regional and local authorities can identify economic priorities specific to certain regions, and ensure that their research priorities are in line with their traffic, health and environment policies.

‘The scientific teams at the heart of the project will be working closely with the bodies responsible for managing traffic, transport and air quality in the UK and European regions to explore how this research can be of value to them,’ says Professor Alan Wells. ‘Our aim is to draw on the strengths of industry and academics working in partnership. We have to be mindful at all stages of the connection between research, policy and how what we are developing can make a difference to the quality of people’s lives.’

Sahel Food Crisis

Mardi 17 janvier 2012

Commissioner Georgieva declares the state of emergency.

The European Union’s Humanitarian Aid Commissioner Kristalina Georgieva arrives in Niger today amid a looming crisis in Africa’s Sahel region. The Commissioner is responding to calls for assistance from the affected countries.

During a four-day visit to the region she will visit Niger and Chad, two of the five Sahel countries (including Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania) most at risk of major food shortages over the coming months.

“Nobody should have to live in fear of famine yet within months people will begin to starve unless we act,” said the Commissioner. “This is the third time in a decade that this region has fallen into crisis. Every year we save more than 200,000 children from severe acute malnutrition but we must and will go further.”

The Commissioner said that, as in the last major crisis in 2010, by anticipating the worst effects of the looming food shortages and acting before they strike more lives would be saved.”I am here this week to make sure that we deliver smart aid, targeting the most vulnerable and delivered in the most cost-effective and efficient manner.”

She will be evaluating humanitarian needs with the authorities and the European Commission’s current response to the crisis as well as identifying the potential needs for further assistance.

Because crops failed in last September’s harvest the annual ‘lean season’ – when food reserves have dwindled – will begin next month instead of June. Seven million people are already facing shortages. Food prices have already risen by 40 per cent, with some forecasts predicting that they will triple with the onset of the lean season.

The Commission has been working to mitigate future crises by establishing an innovative programme through its partners. This programme currently treats more than 200,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition in the Sahel and is working to achieve a permanent and sustainable solution to the region’s chronic food security problems.

Commissioner Georgieva added: “The Commission has provided more than €225 million since 2005. But we want to go further and break the cycle of hunger. In the current crisis we’ve already allocated more than €100 million to fight hunger and we are working closely with other agencies to build a comprehensive aid strategy to cover both the short and long-term actions required to make malnutrition history.”

Background
Approximately 22.9 million people are beginning 2012 with huge uncertainty about how they will feed themselves and their families.

The Sahel suffers from a chronic malnutrition crisis but the prospects of a full-scale disaster this year have already been signalled with the governments of all five countries taking the unprecedented step of declaring emergencies and calling for international assistance. Early, effective and coordinated action by the Sahel governments supported by the international community can reduce the risk of it turning into a major disaster.

Most people who live in the Sahel are heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture and livestock for survival. Food production deficits are as high as 52% in comparison to last year while an estimated 1.3 million children in the region are currently suffering from acute severe malnutrition.

The Commission has been at the forefront of the humanitarian response to malnutrition in the Sahel since 2007 when a specific ECHO Sahel Plan was adopted to raise awareness of nutrition issues, demonstrate the effectiveness of nutrition action and advocate for an enhanced focus on nutrition issues.

‘RegioStars Awards’

Vendredi 13 janvier 2012

The European Commission has announced the winners of the 2012 RegioStars awards

Category 1: Smart Growth - service innovation
- ‘Technopol Programme’ - Lower Austria, AT
- ‘RUR@CT’ – régions actrices de l’innovation rurale – Limousin, FR
- ‘Innovative Collaboration Networks for Smart growth’ – London, UK
- ‘ECO World Styria’ - Styria, AT
- ‘Hohe Tauern Health’ - Salzburg, AT
- ‘Orientation and guidance services for start-ups in Brandenburg’ – Brandenburg, DE
- ‘Digi-lodge’ - various Greek regions, EL

Category 2: Sustainable Growth – eco-system services
- ‘Parc naturel transfrontalier du Hainaut (PNTH)’- Wallonie–Nord-Pas de Calais. BE-FR
- ‘Alps-Carpathian Corridor Trnava’ – Bratislava, Vienna, Burgenland, Niederösterreich. SK-AT
- ‘SIC ADAPT! (Strategic Initiative Cluster – Adaptation to the impacts of climate change)’ – North‑West Europe, DE BE FR IE LU NL UK
- ‘Green Corridors Contracts’ - Rhône-Alpes, FR
- ‘GRaBS: Green and blue space adaptation for urban areas and eco-towns’ - England (leader), UK

Category 3: Inclusive growth – addressing demographic change and active ageing
- ‘I-Cane’ - Province of Limburg, NL
- ‘Project for Early Support of Elderly People in their Daily Lives (VAMU)’ - Northern Savo, FI
- ‘O4O : Older people for older people’ - Finland, Greenland, N.Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, UK FI IE SE
- ‘Seniors in Motion’ - Northern Portugal, PT

Category 4: Citystar: - Integrated development of deprived urban areas
- ‘SÖM South East Malmö’ – Malmö, SE
- ‘Baum – Bratislava Urban Regional Cooperation’ - Nordburgenland, Wiener Umland-Nord, Wiener Umland-Süd, VUC Bratislava, SK-AT
- ‘Open LAB Ebbinge (OLE)’ – Groningen, NL
- ‘Rediscovering Vila do Conde’ - Vila do Conde, PT

Category 5: Information and Communication: presenting project data
- ‘http://www.estlat.eu/’ - Estonia – Latvia, EE-LV
- ‘http://www.europaomdehoek.nl/’ - The Netherlands, NL
- ‘http://www.efrr.wrotapodlasia.pl/’ – Podlaskie, PL
- ‘http://www.nfu.gov.hu/’ – Hungary

The Jury’s decision on the award winners will be announced in June 2012 at the Regions for Economic Change conference.

2013 Awards
The application process for the 2013 RegioStars Awards is now open. The Award Categories for 2013 are:
- SMART GROWTH: Connecting universities to regional growth
- SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: Supporting resource efficiency in SMEs
- INCLUSIVE GROWTH: Social innovation: creative responses to societal challenges
- CITYSTAR: Integrated approaches to sustainable urban development
- INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION: Promoting EU Regional policy with short videos

Applications should be sent by 20 April 2012. The selected finalists will have the opportunity to showcase their projects before an independent jury during the tenth annual European Week of Regions and Cities - OPEN DAYS 2012. The Award ceremony itself will take place in Brussels in early 2013.

Waste: factor of growth and deficit reduction

Vendredi 13 janvier 2012

According a study, compliance with European standards of waste would permit 72 million savings and the creation of 400,000 jobs.

Illegal waste operations in Member States are causing missed opportunities for economic growth, but stronger national inspections and better knowledge about waste management would bring major improvements.

Improved implementation leads to significant benefits
The study gives an in-depth analysis of the effects of better implementation and enforcement and shows that benefits would be significant. It analysed a number of case studies in Cyprus, Germany, Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands to demonstrate economic, financial and social benefits to Member States.

The EU’s waste management and recycling sector is very dynamic, but still offers economic opportunities with vast potential for expansion. In 2008, its €145 billion turnover represented around 1% of the EU’s GDP and 2 million jobs. Compliance with EU policy would help create a sector with 2.4 million jobs and a total annual turnover of €187 billion.

The underlying problem is that too many prices do not reflect the true cost of disposal of goods – if they did, this would help prevent waste in the first place. In addition, many Member States still lack adequate infrastructure for separate collection, recycling and recovery. An absence of systematic control and enforcement mechanisms is another hindrance, coupled with a lack of reliable data on waste management.

Four key conclusions
- The study concludes that we need to know more about waste. Better data and systematic monitoring of how the laws work in practice must be made available. There is progress here, with a specific Data Centre on Waste recently set up by Eurostat.
- Better use of the polluter pays principle, and wider use of economic instruments like raising the costs of disposal, could help ensure compliance and provide the necessary financial resources for waste management.
- Inspection and monitoring capabilities need to be strengthened in Member States. This could mean establishing an auditing capacity at EU level and, possibly, common inspection standards.
- One relatively cost-effective option to strengthen implementation monitoring at EU level could be to draw on the expertise and capabilities of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This option would carry lower administrative costs than creating a new agency dedicated to waste.

Next Steps
The study’s conclusions will be discussed and analysed by the Commission. They will serve as grounds for developing a balanced mix of legal and economic instruments as suggested in the Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe and the Thematic Strategy on Waste Prevention. These strategies encourage economic and legal incentives such as landfill taxes or bans, extending “producer responsibility” schemes and introducing “pay as you throw” schemes.

Background
The EU’s economy uses 16 tonnes of materials per person per year, of which 6 tonnes becomes waste, half of it going to landfill. Many Member States rely mainly on landfill as the preferred waste management option. This situation persists in spite of existing EU waste legislation and is unsustainable.

The Commission’s Roadmap for Resource Efficiency sets out milestones for ensuring that waste is managed as a resource by 2020 including through the revision of prevention, re-use, recycling, recovery and landfill-diversion targets, and through the development of markets for secondary and recycled materials.

The EU is reviewing its trade priorities with the Balkans

Lundi 2 janvier 2012

Trade between the EU and the Western Balkans should grow by 2015. Member countries of the EU took advantage of the new year to review its trade preferences for the period.

The European Union today re-established the exceptional autonomous trade preferences, which it grants to all Western Balkan countries including Kosovo, until the end of 2015. Western Balkan economies will therefore continue as of 1 January 2011 to benefit from an unlimited duty-free access to the EU market for nearly all products originating in these countries and territories. Together with the bilateral Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAAs) in place with all Western Balkan countries except Kosovo, these trade preferences support economic integration with the EU and hence foster political stability and economic progress in the entire region.

The autonomous trade preferences should allow all Western Balkan countries to further benefit from the preferential trade regime, where this is more beneficial than the treatment foreseen in the SAAs. It should notably allow the customs territory of Kosovo to benefit from the current duty-free, quota-free treatment for almost all its exported products, since it does not have an SAA with the EU. Total exports of Kosovo to the EU amounted to about €147 mio in 2010.

Background
In 2000 the European Union established for the first time exceptional unlimited duty-free access to the EU market for nearly all products originating in the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo) in Regulation (EC) No 2007/2000). Only wine, sugar, certain beef products and certain fisheries products enter the EU under preferential tariff quotas, as negotiated under the SAAs. The regime was renewed in 2005, and due to expire on 31 December 2010.

Therefore, on 22 February 2010, the Commission proposed to extend this autonomous preferential regime until 31 December 2015. The European Parliament voted in favour of the Commission’s proposal on 13 October 2011 and the Council adopted it on 24 November 2011. The tariff reductions under the new Regulation amending Council Regulation (EC) No 1215/2009, adopted today, are applied retroactively to allow exporters to claim compensation for the duties paid in 2011.

The European Union is committed more than ever to the Millennium Development Goals

Mercredi 21 décembre 2011

Additional support was given to 36 ACP countries in the fight against hunger, child mortality, maternal health and providing access to water.

This additional funding will focus on reducing hunger and child mortality and securing better maternal health and drinking water and sanitation facilities. With today’s decision the EU is delivering on its €1 billion MDG initiative, announced in September 2010, at the UN MDGs Summit in New York.

Examples of actions to be financed under the MDG initiative include:
- ensuring better access to food for the poorest households in Haiti
- providing milk to children in nurseries and primary schools in Rwanda
- increasing the number of healthcare professionals in Ghana to reduce maternal mortality
- improving access to save water in Samoa, mainly through rainwater harvesting and better sanitation facilities
The MDG initiative focuses on those African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries that have designed projects of high quality to achieve results in the areas where progress is most needed: hunger, water and sanitation, maternal health and child mortality. Today’s allocation amounts to 700€ million. Project proposals have been identified in partnership with the respective countries and are fully results-oriented: they put clear and measurable indicators in place to secure the benefits of the additional money.

Background
The MDG Initiative

The MDG initiative mobilises money from one of the EU’s main instruments of development aid, the 10th European Development Fund (EDF). It envisages a total extra financial effort of €1 billion. Regarding today’s allocation of €700 million, the European Commission and the EU delegations, in coordination with EU Member States representations and national authorities in the partner countries, will soon start working on the preparation of detailed project designs and specific financing proposals for all the actions to be supported by the MDG initiative, with a view to starting the implementation of most projects by the end of 2012. (For a full list of countries and targeted MDGs, see MEMO/11/930).

In parallel to today’s decision, approximately €300 million of the MDG initiative are in the process of being allocated as a reward to 18 well-performing countries, in the framework of the 10th EDF Mid-term Review.

Progress on the MDGs
The UN Millennium Goals Report 2011 confirms that the world has made significant progress on some of the goals. By 2015, global poverty is currently expected to fall below 15%, which is well below the target of 23%. Increased funding and intensive control efforts have led to a reduction of 20% of global deaths from malaria; HIV infections have been declining steadily and the availability of retroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS has increased massively in recent years. Important steps have been made globally towards providing universal primary education.

The European Commission promotes public lighting with LED

Jeudi 15 décembre 2011

The European Commission adopted a Green Paper on the subject and opens a public consultation.

LED lighting is one of the most energy-efficient and versatile forms of lighting - saving up to 70% energy and money compared to other lighting technologies. Faster LED deployment will ensure the success of Europe’s lighting industry and help reduce energy use from lighting by 20% by 2020. But Europe also faces a number of challenges and more input is needed from citizens and businesses to refine the policy. To this end a consultation will run until 29 February 2012 to collect feedback on the Commission’s ideas.

LED lighting faces a number of challenges in the market: high purchase prices because it is a more sophisticated technology compared to the alternatives, lack of familiarity among potential users and a lack of common standards.

Key questions for the public consultation include:

Which actions would help to overcome existing barriers and accelerate LED deployment in Europe?
How to ensure good quality and safe LED products on the European market that meet consumer expectations
How to reinforce cooperation of the lighting sector with architects, lighting designers, electrical installers and the construction and buildings sectors
How can the EU best support entrepreneurship and competitiveness in the lighting sector?
Boosting energy saving LED-based lighting is a key objective of the Digital Agenda for Europe (see IP/10/581, MEMO/10/199 and MEMO/10/200).

Background

With the phasing out of the sale of traditional light bulbs in the EU by September 2012, in the next few years about 8 billion incandescent lamps in European homes, offices and streets will need to be replaced by more energy efficient lighting solutions. These include LED and organic LED (or OLED) lighting technologies also known as Solid State Lighting (SSL).

SSL offers both high quality light and visual performance and increasingly good design options.

SSL can drive innovation in the lighting and construction sectors and offers tremendous opportunities for our businesses – many of them SMEs – leading to jobs and growth in Europe.

The European Commission proposes a roadmap for energy by 2050

Jeudi 15 décembre 2011

The objective of the EU is to reduce 80% CO2 emissions by 2050.

How to achieve this without disrupting energy supplies and competitiveness is the question answered by the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission is presenting today. Based on the analysis of a set of scenarios, the document describes the consequences of a carbon free energy system and the policy framework needed. This should allow member states to make the required energy choices and create a stable business climate for private investment, especially until 2030.

The analysis is based on illustrative scenarios, created by combining in different ways the four main decarbonisation routes (energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear and CCS). None is likely to materialise but all scenarios clearly show a set of “no regrets” options for the coming years.

The Energy Roadmap 2050 identifies a number of elements which have positive impacts in all circumstances, and thus define some key outcomes such as:

- Decarbonisation of the energy system is technically and economically feasible. All decarbonisation scenarios allow achieving the emission reduction target and can be less costly than current policies in the long-run.

- Energy Efficiency and renewable energy are critical. Irrespective of the particular energy mix chosen, higher energy efficiency and important rising shares of renewables are necessary to meet the CO2 targets in 2050. The scenarios also show that electricity will play a greater role than now. Gas, oil, coal and nuclear also figure in all scenarios in different proportions, allowing Member States to keep flexible options in their energy mix provided a well connected internal market is achieved quickly.

- Early Investments cost less. Investment decisions for the necessary infrastructure up to 2030 must be taken now, as infrastructure built 30-40 years ago needs to be replaced. Acting immediately can avoid more costly changes in twenty years. The EU’s energy evolution requires anyway modernisation and much more flexible infrastructure such as cross border interconnections, “intelligent” electricity grids and modern low-carbon technologies to produce, transmit and store energy.

- Contain the increase of prices. The investments made now will pave the way for the best prices in the future. Electricity prices are bound to raise until 2030, but can fall thereafter thanks to lower cost of supply, saving policies and improved technologies. The costs will be outweighed by the high level of sustainable investment brought into the European economy, the related local jobs, and the decreased import dependency. All scenarios get to decarbonisation with no major differences in terms of overall costs or security of supply implications.

- Economies of scale are needed. A European approach will result in lower costs and secure supply compared to national parallel schemes. This includes a common energy market which should be completed by 2014.

Background

The aim of the roadmap is to achieve the low-carbon 2050 objectives while improving Europe’s competitiveness and security of supply. Member States are already planning national energy policies for the future, but it is necessary to join forces in coordinating their efforts within a broader framework. The Roadmap will be followed by further policy initiatives on specific energy policy areas in the coming years, starting with proposals on the internal market, renewable energy and nuclear safety next year.

The EC published in March 2011 the overall decarbonisation roadmap covering the whole economy. All sectors – power generation, transport, residential, industry and agriculture –were analysed. The Commission has also been preparing sectoral roadmaps, among which the Energy Roadmap 2050 is the last one, focusing on the whole energy sector.

Cohesion policy more transparent

Lundi 12 décembre 2011

Member States have decided to strengthen the monitoring of financial instruments available under Cohesion Policy

This will mean that Member States will have to report once a year on progress made in financing and implementing these instruments. Such reporting will allow the Commission to better assess the overall performance of financial instruments across Member States. Together with additional information to be presented with each statement of expenditure, the Commission will be able to produce accurate and comprehensive accounts, which give a true image of the Union’s assets and of the actual budgetary implementation.

Member States are already utilising these financial instruments. Another alternative to traditional funding, which has proven successful in Member States, are the existing schemes of repayable assistance. But there was a need to provide a clear legal framework and a reassurance for their correct continued usage. With the introduction of these new correction mechanisms, the Commission follows recommendations of the European Court of Auditors.

The Member States have agreed on Monday as well with the possibility to increase the co-financing rate for all structural funds for so called programme countries, which receive special assistance, with a maximum of 10 percentage points. This would not lead to a higher allocation of funding from the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund, Cohesion Fund, Fisheries Fund or European Fund for Rural Development, but would make it easier for cash-strapped Member States to co-finance projects, to create growth and jobs. The European Parliament has approved this increase already. This new possibility will enter into force, together with the improved monitoring on financial instruments, on 19 December of this year.

Background
The Commission encourages the use of financial instruments under cohesion policy, moving away from traditional one-off grants and wants to focus more on them in the next financial perspective. In times of scarce public finances the use of guarantee schemes or repayable assistance is the best way to maximise the impact of EU investment on the ground, ensuring in the long term many more projects can be supported. In the current financial perspective from 2007 until 2013 some 10 billion Euro is available for financial instruments under cohesion policy.

The so-called “repayable assistance” can take the form of either reimbursable grants (partially or totally repayable without interest by project holders) or credit lines offered to beneficiaries through financial institutions, acting as intermediaries. For instance, in Portugal, almost all cohesion policy programmes use repayable forms of assistance to support competitiveness and innovation. As an example, the National Institute for the support of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs ) can provide a reimbursable grant to a beneficiary with a view to a part of this grant being repaid once the project is complete. The investment returned to the national authority is reused for new projects.